These commands are the inverse functions of sin , cos and tan. A dialog is a small pop-up window that provides some feedback or asks for some input. KTurtle has two commands for dialogs, namely: message and ask. The message command takes a string as input. It shows a pop-up dialog containing the text from the string.
It shows this string in a pop-up dialog similar to message , along with an input field. After the user has entered a number or a string into this, the result can be stored in a variable or passed as an argument to a command.
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For example:. If the user cancels the input dialog, or does not enter anything at all, the variable is empty. Moving the turtle.
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Note Using the commands go , gox , goy and center the turtle will not draw a line, no matter if the pen is up or down. Where is the turtle? The turtle has a pen. Commands to control the canvas.
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Commands to clean up. The turtle is a sprite. Can the turtle write? Mathematical commands. Input and feedback through dialogs.
Another trap for the unwary is that empty arguments will be dropped if they are not quoted arguments. Consider the following example:. The third argument passed to foo is an empty string. Because that empty argument is a single quoted argument, it is preserved and passed through into foo. Inside foo , that empty argument exists in ARGV , but it is unquoted. Attempting to replace empty arguments in a list with embedded quotes and then passing that list as the set of command arguments results in the quotes being passed through instead of an empty string. Named arguments are typically required to get out of this situation:.
Therefore, the method used in the original example should be okay for forwarding arguments to that command. If that were to occur, then an implementation using the above argument-forwarding technique would no longer pass through those arguments safely. If you were especially unlucky, it might not lead to an error, but instead to a silent change in behavior.
Therefore, implementors need to consider whether the command being forwarded to is likely to receive options of that nature in the future before committing to using ARGV and ARGN for forwarding arguments. When used to forward arguments, list flattening causes empty strings to be discarded and embedded semicolons will become argument separators. If an option or argument is split up on the command line into multiple places because it is repeated — for instance, --exclude foo --include baz --exclude bar — the callback will fire based on the position of the first option.
In this case, the callback will fire for exclude and it will be passed both options foo and bar , then the callback for include will fire with baz only.
Note that even if a parameter does not allow multiple versions, Click will still accept the position of the first, but it will ignore every value except the last. The reason for this is to allow composability through shell aliases that set defaults. If a parameter is not defined on the command line, the callback will still fire.
This is different from how it works in optparse where undefined values do not fire the callback. Missing parameters fire their callbacks at the very end which makes it possible for them to default to values from a parameter that came before. Most of the time you do not need to be concerned about any of this, but it is important to know how it works for some advanced cases.
In some situations it is interesting to be able to accept all unknown options for further manual processing. Click can generally do that as of Click 4. It can be enabled by changing the attribute of the same name on the context class Context. For most situations the easiest solution is the second. Once the behavior is changed something needs to pick up those leftover options which at this point are considered arguments. For this again you have two options:. If you go with this solution, the extra arguments will be collected in Context.
You can attach a argument with nargs set to -1 which will eat up all leftover arguments. There are a few things that are important to know about how this ignoring of unhandled flag happens:. Unknown long options are generally ignored and not processed at all. Note that because the parser cannot know if an option will accept an argument or not, the bar part might be handled as an argument.
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Unknown short options might be partially handled and reassmebled if necessary. For instance in the above example there is an option called -v which enables verbose mode. If the command would be ignored with -va then the -v part would be handled by Click as it is known and -a would end up in the leftover parameters for further processing. Depending on your situation this might improve your results. Generally though the combinated handling of options and arguments from your own commands and commands from another application are discouraged and if you can avoid it, you should.
Starting with Click 5.